Seasoning Steak

Module 1 

The Evolution of the Food Service Industry

  1.01: 
Module
Summary
  1.02: 
Goals & Objectives

1.03: History

The term restaurant (from the French restaurer) first appeared in the 16th century, meaning “a food which restors” and referred specifically to a rich highly flavored soup. It was first applied to an eating establishment around 1765 founded by a Parisian soup seller named Boulanger. The first restaurant in the form that became standard (customers sitting down with individual plates at individual tables, selecting food from a menu, during fixed operating hours) was the Grand Taverne de Londres (The Great Tavern of London, founded in Paris in 1782 by a man named Antoine Beauvilliers, a leading culinary writer and gastronomic authority who achieved a reputation as a successful restauranteur and later wrote what became a standard cookbook L’Art du cuisiner.

One of the biggest factors in the expansion of the culinary industry in America was the Industrial Revolution.

The Industrial Revolution impacted the food service industry by manufacturing. Manufacturing drove people to the cities and created a thriving middle class. Food service establishments then began to open up around railway stations in order to accommodate the hungry travelers.

 

Raymond Albert Kroc was the pioneer of the fast food industry with his worldwide McDonald’s enterprise (1954). An American entrepreneur, famous for significantly expanding the McDonald’s Corporation from 1955. He joined the restaurant chain in 1954, after it was started by Richard and Maurice (Mac) McDonald in 1940. Dubbed as the Hamburger King, Kroc was included in the TIME Magazine 100 list of the world’s most influential builders and titans of industry and amassed a $500 million fortune during his lifetime.

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Chefs Discussing over Food

1.04: Professionalism

What is professionalism?  Professionalism is the conduct, behavior and attitude of someone in a work or business environment. A person doesn't have to work in a specific profession to demonstrate the important qualities and characteristics of a professional. Culinary professionals need a strong skillset, based on education and experience as well as a personality that lends itself to the rewards – and, yes, the stress – of working in one of today’s top service/hospitality industries. The culinary arts profession is very competitive, and you know who your biggest competitor will be? You! If you want to join the fast-paced world of professional food preparation, you’ll spend the rest of your life experimenting, testing, and modifying your own recipes.

Skills require education and practice. Culinary professional George Krumov says, “Only if you become a real chef will you get to experience the beautiful sensation of creating art, experience, love, madness, and pleasure all in one dish!” It’s worth your time to learn more.

 

Giulia Simolo is a South African journalist who shares the following personality traits that can be developed to become a culinary professional:

  • Effective communication – Your employees will come from varied backgrounds, and you’ll need to be careful when communicating. What you think is funny could be an insult to another. When a client is irrational and angry, you’ll be understanding and polite. When an employer wants the impossible, you find a workaround.

  • Emotional strength – You may have to work long and unusual hours. For example, many pastry chefs work all night and sleep during the day. You may have to cope with a great deal of pressure every day.

  • Flexibility – You’re finally Head Chef! You worked hard to get there and take pride in your accomplishments. But if the dish washing employee fails to show, guess what? You wash dishes. If the delivery of a necessary ingredient is delayed, you change the recipe. Flexibility may be the most valuable personality trait you’ll develop.

  • Organization – You need to know where everything is located instantly. “Everything in its place and a place for everything.” Your ability to be successful depends on this.

  • Physical Strength – You will be on your feet, moving rapidly for many hours, almost every day. Stamina and good health are necessary attributes you’ll need to have to remain focused.

1.05: Skills

Some of the skills needed to become a successful chef include:

 

  1. Cleanliness – You know safe food handling is important, but your work area itself should be clean, from floor to ceiling.

  2. Creativity – Your creative presentations of food as well as imaginative recipes can establish your reputation as a great chef.

  3. Culinary Experience – With time, you will recognize the variety of flavors and how to use them as well as become more proficient at using knives and other food preparation and delivery equipment.

  4. Detail-oriented – Cooking is a science; measurements and ingredients should be precise.

  5. Good Business Sense – A culinary professional should always think about ways to lower costs and increase profits, no matter what industry he or she serves.

  6. Motivated – Not only should you have the drive to succeed, you should be able to motivate others in your kitchen to perform above-average and to take pride in their work!

  7. Multitasking – A chef has – literally – a lot of irons in the fire. You’ll need the ability to organize and supervise several tasks at the same time.

  8. Team Player – No matter what your specialty or where you work, you need others and they need you. You’ll want to be supportive of your co-workers and work effectively with other staff and management.

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1.06: Trends & Concerns in the Culinary Industry

Although trends change from year to year in the culinary arts industry, below are some of the top trends to explore for the current decade.

 

1. Organics
You’ve probably seen organic foods in the grocery store or heard that they are “healthier” than the items you normally buy. These claims may or may not be true, but here are the facts. Organic produce differentiates itself in the following ways: fruits and vegetables are grown without any chemicals, which means no pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, or harmful fertilizers will touch them, while meats are humanely raised, fed organic grain, and given no hormone injections or antibiotics. This basically equates to a complete removal of chemicals from your foods, which is probably a healthy choice in the long run.


2. Flexitarian
This unique and rapidly spreading diet is mostly vegetarian. It allows consumers the freedom to eat meat occasionally (lean meats like chicken and fish are recommended, although red meats that are high in protein and iron can be consumed up to twice a week), while ingesting a predominantly vegetarian diet.


3. Macrobiotics
This is a big word for a no-meat diet. But it differs from the standard vegetarian or vegan diet in that it relies heavily on brown rice and whole grains, while limiting the intake of fruits and vegetables to certain items that must be eaten in soup form. Additionally, animal products (eggs, dairy) are discouraged, along with items that are high in fat, and strangely, cold foods.


4. Raw Foods
Just the opposite of macrobiotics, this diet demands that food be prepared without cooking. Acceptable items include fruits, vegetables, nuts, beans, grains, and the like, none of which can be heated to above 116 degrees Fahrenheit at the risk of destroying enzymes that aid in digestion and absorption, or the “life force” of the food.

 

5. Instinctive Eating
This fringe diet (sometimes referred to as Instincto) also requires that foods be raw, but unlike the raw-food diet, it allows for the consumption of animal products. That’s right, you can eat eggs, meat, insects, pretty much whatever you want as you want it…provided it’s raw. The other part of the diet is a bit strange, especially in a culture where the norm is to plan out meals. People who choose this diet are encouraged to eat what they desire at any given moment, and this is determined by smelling (or when acceptable, tasting) the foods on hand. Plus, foods can’t be mixed, spiced, or anything of the sort. They are literally eaten as is.

It is important for individuals who are working in the culinary arts industry to recognize that there are concerns within the field. Culinary professionals need to stay abreast of the ever changing rules and regulations and strictly adhere to those in order to ensure customer safety.

One of the most pressing issues in the food service industry is food safety. This is of paramount concern since any mishandling, contamination, or reported food-borne illness is guaranteed to be a major PR nightmare. The food service industry’s prime responsibility to consumers is public health and safety.

Modern consumer food trends that catch on quickly (thanks in part to the Internet and social media), have become a breeding ground for food safety-related problems, and food safety professionals should be ready to respond. Consultants must always be on the lookout for food trends to effectively guide food entrepreneurs in implementing safety strategies and protecting their brand.

Modern consumer food trends that catch on quickly (thanks in part to the Internet and social media), have become a breeding ground for food safety-related problems, and food safety professionals should be ready to respond. Consultants must always be on the lookout for food trends to effectively guide food entrepreneurs in implementing safety strategies and protecting their brand.

Back in the Day

In early years, cooking and baking would be a time-consuming process. In the 14th and 15th century, individuals were cooking in stone ovens and over an open fire. The process of warming the stone could take hours. Then, take into consideration the time to gather the wood and hay or kindling to light the fire. Also, if cooking breads or desserts, they did not have the leavening agents that we have now, so it may have taken overnight to wait for the bread to rise and be ready to cook.

Bread

1.08: Review/Critical Thinking

Please complete the following questions. It is important that you use full sentences and present the questions and answers when you submit your work.

 

Go to the Assessment area in the course to complete the assignment Review and Critical Thinking and submit the work as a file attachment.

 

The answers to the Review and Critical Thinking Questions are worth 10 points.

1.09: Cooking Assignment #1

You are to make one of the following:

This should not be a 'boxed' or 'pre' mix. This is your opportunity to incorporate all of the ingredients from one of the recipes listed above and actually have the hands-on experience - which is the best way to learn!

 

This assignment will NOT be graded on presentation so please do not worry if your final product does not turn out perfectly. The goal for you on this assignment is to TRY YOUR BEST!  At a minimum, you should take pictures of: (1) the ingredients prior to cooking, (2) a picture demonstrating a preparation or cooking technique, and (3) the completed product/dish. When you're finished, write a brief description of the techniques you used to prepare the dish. Write a separate paragraph evaluating the results. Include any problems you encountered and how you overcame them. It is ideal to put everything into ONE document/presentation. Submit in the Assessments area.

Baking Breads

Bread
Sharing Food

1.10: Module 1 Quiz

Before you take the quiz for this unit take a moment to review what you have learned.

When you feel that you are ready to complete the Module 1 Quiz, The Evolution of the Food Service Industry Quiz, click HERE.

Evolution of the Food Industry